Have a test tomorrow for Geology, and thought to share my review questions here. these are chapter 6 only

essentials of geology 4th edition book cover

 

 

·         Wrong Answer is highlighted in Red.

·         Correct Answer is highlighted in Green

·         1. Sedimentary rocks can form

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. by precipitation of minerals from water solution.

o    b. by the cementing together of loose grains of preexisting rock.

o    c. from shell fragments or carbon-rich relicts of plants.

o    d. All the proposed answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: The precipitation of minerals from water solution is called chemical sedimentary rock; the cementing together of loose grains of preexisting rock is called clastic sedimentary rock. Despite the fact organisms are involved, shell material and plant material do constitute biochemical and organic (carbonaceous) sedimentary rocks, so all answers are true.
Section: 6.1, p. 164

·         2. Choose the proper listing of detritus terms, going from smallest to largest.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. sand, silt, pebbles

o    b. mud, silt, sand

o    c. silt, mud, sand

o    d. sand, cobbles, pebbles

o    e. mud, sand, silt

o    Feedback/Reference: Clastic particle sizes range from smallest to largest: mud, silt, sand, pebbles, and cobbles.
Section: 6.2, p. 164; Figure 6.1, p. 164

·         3. Identify the TRUE statement:

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. Conglomerates consist of a single grain size.

o    b. Pieces of broken rock produced by physical weathering are collectively called clasts or detritus.

o    c. A well-sorted clastic rock is made up of different-sized particles.

o    d. An immature clastic rock has well-sorted, resistant grains.

o    e. All the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: Conglomerates are made up of various grain sizes. A well-sorted rock is made up of uniform particle sizes. Mature clastic rocks are made up of well-sorted, resistant grains.
Section: 6.2, p. 164
Resources: Figure 7.3

·         4. Which of the following features indicates the top of a sedimentary bed, or bed-surface, marker?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. scour marks

o    b. fossil footprints

o    c. graded bedding

o    d. mud cracks

o    e. All the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: All the possible answers are correct.
Section: 6.4, p. 177
Resources: Fig. 7.14

·         5. Lithification is a general term used to describe all the physical, chemical, and biological processes that make a sedimentary rock from sediments.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Dolostone is a good example of the recrystallization of an existing sedimentary rock, which is one aspect of the process called diagenesis. Diagenesis includes all the physical, chemical, and biological processes that transform sediment into sedimentary rock or alter existing sedimentary rock.
Section: 6.2, p. 165
Resources: Flashcards

·         6. The presence of mudcracks indicates the sediments lithified in water.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Mudcracks suggest that the mud has dried, or desiccated.
Section: 6.3, p. 176; Figure 6.15, p. 177

·         7. A nonmarine clastic sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments surrounded by matrix is

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. breccia.

o    b. conglomerate.

o    c. turbidite.

o    d. fossiliferous limestone.

o    e. arkose.

o    Feedback/Reference: Fossiliferous limestone and turbidities are marine rocks. Arkose doesn’t have fragments in its matrix. Conglomerate fragments are rounded. Only breccia fits the description.
Section: 6.2, p. 167; Figure 6.4(a), p. 168
Resources: Flashcards

·         8. Which of the following words is associated with the formation of travertine?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. deposition

o    b. lithification

o    c. compaction

o    d. cementation

o    e. crystallization

o    Feedback/Reference: Travertine (chemical limestone) is crystalline calcium carbonate that has precipitated out of groundwater.
Section: 6.2, p. 171; Figure 6.8, p. 172
Resources: Flashcards

·         9. A mud of fine calcite and/or aragonite shell debris could become which of these rocks?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. micrite

o    b. travertine

o    c. chert

o    d. tephra

o    e. shale

o    Feedback/Reference: Micrite is a limestone composed of very small calcite particles. While travertine is also calcite, it forms around hotsprings and in caves. Chert is formed from silica.
Section: 6.2, p. 168

·         10. A clastic sedimentary rock with clay and silt-sized grains that breaks in thin sheets is called

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. mudstone.

o    b. shale.

o    c. siltstone.

o    d. graywacke.

o    e. micrite.

o    Feedback/Reference: Only mudstone and shale are rocks made of silt and mud-sized pieces, and a mudstone doesn’t break in thin sheets.
Section: 6.2, p. 167; Table 6.1, p. 167

·         11. Which term has nothing to do with the mineral calcite?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. chert

o    b. fossiliferous limestone

o    c. chalk

o    d. micrite

o    e. aragonite

o    Feedback/Reference: Chert is composed of the mineral quartz (i.e., it’s siliceous). The others are examples of biochemical limestone, all composed of the mineral calcite or its polymorph aragonite.
Section: 6.2, p. 169

·         12. An organic sedimentary rock originated as decaying plant matter is

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. peat

o    b. coal.

o    c. chert.

o    d. oil shale.

o    e. dolostone.

o    Feedback/Reference: Both peat and coal originate from decayed plant matter, but peat is not a rock, while coal is a rock.  Oil shale contains kerogens, and/or oil within it, and is vaguely related to peat and coal to in that it contains organic matter that can be burned as fuel.
Section: 6.2, p. 169

·         13. Identify the TRUE statement:

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. Both chert and limestone may have either chemical or biochemical origin.

o    b. Flint, jasper, agate, and petrified wood are all varieties of the siliceous rock chert.

o    c. Gypsum and halite are evaporite minerals.

o    d. Chemical sedimentary rocks are crystalline in texture.

o    e. All the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: All the possible answers are correct.
Section: 6.2, p. 171

·         14. Flint and jasper were prized in early human cultures because

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. large outcrops of them often contained caves to live in.

o    b. they are translucent minerals and were useful for windows.

o    c. they were rare and pretty and used as trade items.

o    d. they dissolved in water readily, contributing minerals that made healthy drinking water.

o    e. they broke with conchoidal fracture and thus made good cutting tools.

o    Feedback/Reference: Flint and jasper are highly insoluble, don’t contain large cavities, and are neither translucent nor rare
Section: 6.2, p. 168

·         15. Ripple marks on a bedding plane

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. suggest you’re looking at an old delta.

o    b. are parallel to the current direction that created them.

o    c. could suggest an ancient stream bed or a seashore.

o    d. are a sure sign the area had periodic drought.

o    e. All the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: Ripple marks require a constant current in permanent shallow water and form at right angles to current direction.
Section: 6.3, p. 175

·         16. This diagram shown below is a profile of

digram

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. ripple marks created by water flowing from A to B.

o    b. ripple marks created by water flowing from B to A.

o    c. sand dunes created by wind blowing from A to B.

o    d. sand dunes created by wind blowing from B to A.

o    e. graded bedding in a submarine trench.

o    Feedback/Reference: Ripple marks are gentle on the upcurrent side, steep on the downcurrent side; sand dune cross sections would look similar, but they would be many feet high.
Section: 6.3, p. 175
Resources: Figure 6.12, p. 174

·         17. What is the most logical past environment to have produced a deposit consisting of layers of well-sorted sandstone with cross beds several meters high?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. alluvial fan along a mountain front

o    b. sand dunes

o    c. shallow-water carbonate area

o    d. small-lake environment

o    e. glacial valley

o    Feedback/Reference: Alluvial fans would produce conglomerates; carbonate areas would be limestone; lakes would produce mudstones; and glacial valleys would contain unsorted till. Only sand dunes would produce well-sorted sandstone with cross bedding.
Section: 6.3, p. 175
Resources: Figure 6.13, p. 175

·         18. What is the most logical past environment to have produced a deposit consisting of layers of unsorted, unstratified sedimentary clasts, clay-sized to boulder-sized?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. floodplain

o    b. sand dunes

o    c. shallow-water carbonate area

o    d. small-lake environment

o    e. glacial valley

o    Feedback/Reference: Glaciers are powerful enough agents of transportation to carry along unsorted large-sized clasts and drop them all simultaneously when the ice melts.
Section: 6.4, p. 179; Figure 6.16(a), p. 178

·         19. What is the most logical past environment to have produced a deposit consisting of very little sand and mud, but instead lots of broken-up carbonate shells of marine organisms?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. delta

o    b. sand dunes

o    c. shallow-water carbonate area

o    d. small-lake environment

o    e. glacial valley

o    Feedback/Reference: Marine organisms of shallow-water zones contribute their calcite (limestone) shells to form the bedrock of the area.
Section: 6.4, p. 183

·         20. Geologists find a thick sequence of alternating shales and sandstones. The probable depositional environment and interpretation of these are:

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. deep-marine deposits near the continental shelf.

o    b. the foreset beds of a river delta.

o    c. a high latitude or high-elevation lake that froze over each winter.

o    d. evaporates.

o    e. the seaward side of a volcanic arc.

o    Feedback/Reference: Turbidite deposits are characterized by alternating, thinly bedded shales and sandstones and may be thousands of feet thick. They form from turbid currents that periodically move down submarine canyons or detach from submarine slumps.
Section: 6.3, p. 175, Figure 6.14, p. 176

·         21. The structure that may form where a stream enters a lake

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. is called a delta.

o    b. has nearly horizontal topset beds composed of gravel.

o    c. has sloping foreset beds of gravel and sand.

o    d. has nearly horizontal silty bottomset beds on the lake floor.

o    e. All the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: All the possible answers are correct.
Section: 6.4, p. 179

·         22. Which of the following geological features was NOT formed by sedimentary processes?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. Columbia River Plateau, Washington

o    b. Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

o    c. Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park

o    d. Mono Lake, California

o    e. Mediterranean sea floor

o    Feedback/Reference: The Columbia River Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) flood basalt, which is an igneous feature (see Chapter 5). Bonneville Salt Flats and the Mediterranean sea floor are thick evaporite deposits. Mammoth Hot Springs and Mono Lake have extensive travertine deposits.
Section: 6.2, pp. 172

·         23. Which of the following sedimentary features is the surest indicator that the past environment was deep water?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. turbidites

o    b. mudcracks

o    c. scour marks

o    d. fossil marine clam shell imprints

o    e. They are all indicators of a subaerial land surface.

o    Feedback/Reference: Mudcracks develop only if a muddy surface dries up sufficiently to crack into roughly hexagonal plates. Scour marks are small troughs scooped out by current flowing over a sediment surface. Clams are common in shallow waters and so fossils of them would be most likely well-preserved in similar environments.
Section: 6.3, pp. 176; Figure 6.14, p. 168

·         24. Sedimentary rocks differ from igneous rocks in that sedimentary rocks can never be crystalline in texture and igneous rocks always are crystalline.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Igneous rocks need not be crystalline (example: obsidian isn’t crystalline, as noted in Chapter 5) while some sedimentary rocks are crystalline (limestone).
Section: 6.2, p. 169

·         25. Sedimentary rocks form only at or near Earth’s surface, never at great depths.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Sedimentary rocks result from sediment deposition by wind or water or from chemical precipitation in still bodies of water, all of which are surface occurrences.
Section: 6.4, p. 181

·         26. The words weathering and erosion are synonyms; they can be used interchangeably.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: They’re similar but not synonymous. Erosion means the rock has been carried away from its place of origin, whereas weathering can include the in-place breaking down (decomposition).
Section: 6.2, p. 165; Figure 6.2, p. 165

·         27. Graywacke and conglomerate are examples of well-sorted rocks; claystone and siltstone are examples of poorly sorted rocks.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Just the reverse is true.
Section: 6.2, p. 167

·         28. A rock with large, angular fragments and lots of feldspar is classified as immature; a rock with smaller, rounded grains and not much feldspar is classified as mature.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: The presence of angular fragments and large amounts of feldspar implies the rock has not undergone weathering for a geologically long period of time and therefore is young, or immature.
Section: 6.2, p. 167

·         29. The formation of dolostone, due to the introduction of magnesium into limestone, is an example of diagenesis.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Dolostone is a good example of the recrystallization of an existing sedimentary rock, which is one aspect of the process called diagenesis. Diagenesis includes all the physical, chemical, and biological processes that transform sediment into sedimentary rock or alter existing sedimentary rock.
Section: 6.2, p. 171

·         30. The word fluvial means lake.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: The words for lake are lacustrine or pluvial (or playa, for dry lakes). Fluvial means river.
Section: 6.4, p. 179
Resources: Figure 6.16(e), p. 178

·         31. Obvious sandstone beach deposits overlain by marine mudstone indicate transgression of the sea.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Shallow water deposited the sand; deeper water moved in (transgression) and deposited finer-grained mud.
Section: 6.5, p. 184; Figure 6.22, p. 185
Resources: Video: Transgression and Regression; Flashcards

·         32. Diagenesis and metamorphism both alter the texture and mineral composition of rock; metamorphism is the higher temperature process.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Geologists generally consider reactions that occur at 300°C or greater as metamorphic, below 150°C as diagenetic, and between 150°C and 300°C as either, depending on the rock type involved.
Section: 6.5, p. 185
Resources: Flashcards

·         33. A sequence of sedimentary beds, traceable across a region and distinctive enough to be recognized as a unit is called a stratigraphic formation.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: A stratigraphic formation is often a crop of rocks now isolated by erosion, or encountered by drilling at depth, that share similar ages, depositional history, and other characteristics.
Section: 6.3, p. 174
Resources: Flashcards; Figure 6.11, p. 174; Video: What a Geologist Sees: Formations in the Grand Canyon

·         34. Which of the following is NOT one of the major classes of sedimentary rocks?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. clastic

o    b. biochemical

o    c. chemical

o    d. intrusive

o    e. organic

o    Feedback/Reference: Intrusive rocks are a type of igneous rock, formed by freezing of magma.
Section: 6.4, p. 180

·         35. Formation of a clastic sedimentary rock involves five stages. Which of the following describes lithification?

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. disintegration of bedrock into separate particles

o    b. compaction and cementation of loose particles to form solid rock

o    c. separation of rock or regolith from its substrate

o    d. process by which particles settle out of transport medium

o    e. the movement of sedimentary particles by water, wind, or ice

o    Feedback/Reference: Disintegration describes weathering, compaction describes lithification, separation describes erosion, the process by which particles settle out of transport medium defines deposition, and the movement of sedimentary particles by water, wind, or ice defines transportation. Together, these are the five stages of clastic sedimentary rock formation.
Section: 6.2, pp. 165–166
Resources: Flashcards

·         36. As sediment is transported downstream, away from its point of origin, the particles found in the stream become

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. smaller.

o    b. rounder.

o    c. better sorted by size.

o    d. of greater resistance.

o    e. All the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: Clastic sediments increase in maturity as they are transported farther from their point of origin. Along the way, they become smaller, increasingly well-rounded, and well-sorted, and easily weathered grains are gradually destroyed.
Section: 6.2, pp. 166-167

·         37. Rocks formed dominantly from the calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms are classified as _____ and called _____.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. clastic; arkose

o    b. organic; coal

o    c. biochemical; limestone

o    d. chemical; travertine

o    Feedback/Reference: Only “biochemical” and “limestone” can be formed of shells and shell fragments cemented together.
Section: 6.2, p. 167

·         38. Ripple marks, dunes, and cross bedding are useful indicators of

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. water depth.

o    b. flow velocity.

o    c. sediment source.

o    d. lithification process.

o    e. current direction.

o    Feedback/Reference: Moving wind and/or water creates ripples, dunes, and cross beds in sediments. Each has a distinctive shape or pattern that can be used to infer current direction.
Section: 6.3, pp. 175–176; Figure 6.15, p. 177
Resources: Video: Formation of Cross Beds

·         39. A sedimentary basin that forms when continental lithosphere is stretched, causing down-dropped crustal blocks bordered by narrow mountain ranges and alluvial fans, is called a

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. rift basin.

o    b. passive margin basin.

o    c. intracontinental basin.

o    d. foreland basin.

o    e. None of the possible answers are correct.

o    Feedback/Reference: Passive-margin basins form on the edges of continents and continue long after rifting has ended; intracontinental basins are similar to rift basins, but form over much larger areas for much longer time periods; foreland basins lie on the continent side of a mountain front formed due to continental collision. Rift basins are the only type that typically have bordering mountain ranges and alluvial fans.
Section: 6.5, p. 184; Figure 6.21, p. 184

·         40. Sediments in a passive-margin basin are primarily fluvially derived but can also include carbonates.

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. True

o    b. False

o    Feedback/Reference: Passive-margin basins form away from plate boundaries and arc volcanism. Rivers and streams deliver vast quantities of sediment into these basins. In warmer equatorial waters and where the clastic sediment flux is lower, carbonate reefs or shellbeds may also form.
Section: 6.5, p. 184

·         41. When sea level rises, the shoreline migrates inland, flooding the land and depositing coastal sediments over preexisting terrestrial sediments. This process is called

o    Topic: n/a

o    a. rifting.

o    b. uplifting.

o    c. transgression.

o    d. subsidence.

o    e. regression.

o    Feedback/Reference: This is an example of transgression. The opposite is regression, when sea level falls and terrestrial sediments are deposited over marine sediments.
Section: 6.5, p. 184; Figure 6.22, p. 185
Resources: Video: Transgression and Regression

 

  • 1. Which statement about the hydrologic cycle is FALSE?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. It includes the exchange of water among oceans, land, and atmosphere.
    • b. Water that infiltrates the ground exits from the hydrologic cycle.
    • c. Processes that do not involve liquid or gasseous (vapor) of H20 can also be part of the hydrologic cycle.
    • d. Precipitation can fall directly into a stream, accumulate in a standing body, become sheetwash, or infiltrate the soil.
    • e. It includes water that is released into the air by plants during photosynthesis.
  • 2. Which of the following statements about drainage divides is FALSE?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. A drainage divide is a ridge that separates one watershed from another.
    • b. Precipitation that falls on the east side of the continental divide flows to the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.
    • c. The divide that runs along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains separates the Atlantic Ocean drainage from the Arctic Ocean drainage.
    • d. The ultimate base level for streams on the west side of the continental divide is the Pacific Ocean.
    • e. A divide that runs just south of the Canada–United States border separates Gulf of Mexico drainage from Hudson Bay–Arctic Ocean drainage.
  • 3. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. A stream is any channelized body of running water.
    • b. Meteoric water is any water that has fallen from the sky.
    • c. The efficiency of downcutting depends on the velocity of flow, the strength of the substrate, and the amount of vegetation cover.
    • d. A stream that swings back and forth in snakelike curves is called a braided stream.
    • e. Flat land on either side of a stream that is usually not underwater is called a floodplain.
  • 4. Incised meanders

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. are meanders that lie at the bottom of steep-walled canyons with little or no floodplain.
    • b. can result from either superposed or antecedent stream activity.
    • c. are examples of a feature of stream maturity (meanders) in a youthful setting (steep-walled).
    • d. are illustrated by the goosenecks of the San Juan River, Utah.
    • e. All the possible answers are correct.
  • 5. An ephemeral stream

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. is one whose bed lies below the water table.
    • b. is replenished by both precipitation and groundwater.
    • c. flows year-round.
    • d. may sometimes become a dry wash, wadi, or arroyo.
    • e. All the possible answers are correct.
  • 6. The discharge of a stream is

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. calculated by dividing its cross-sectional area by its velocity.
    • b. constant for the length of the stream.
    • c. likely to decrease downstream in arid regions and increase downstream in temperate regions.
    • d. typically lower in spring than during summer.
    • e. All the possible answers are correct.
  • 7. Which statement is TRUE?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. Stream flow is fastest in the center of a channel near the surface.
    • b. The slowest-moving part of a stream is called the thalweg.
    • c. Water from distributaries flows into the main trunk stream.
    • d. A shallow stream is less turbulent than a deep stream.
    • e. All the possible answers are correct.
  • 8. A typical longitudinal profile of a stream

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. shows a cross section of the stream from bank to bank at one particular site.
    • b. is roughly a convex-upward curve.
    • c. illustrates that a stream’s gradient is steeper near its headwaters than near its mouth.
    • d. shows almost horizontal plains near the stream’s headwaters and deep valleys near its mouth.
    • e. is used to calculate discharge: the stream length multiplied by the drop in elevation equals the discharge.
  • 9. Which of the following statements is FALSE? Waterfalls

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. often scour out plunge pools at their bases.
    • b. may be found where a stream crosses a resistant ledge of rock.
    • c. may form where movement along a fault has produced an escarpment.
    • d. may drop from a shallow hanging valley into a deeper valley in areas that have been carved by glaciers.
    • e. last for millions of years because they are created by elevation differences in exceedingly hard bedrock.
  • 10. Which of the following statements is FALSE? Deltas

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. may form where a stream empties into the quiet waters of a lake or the ocean.
    • b. are likely to slowly sink and become swampland called a delta plain.
    • c. make poor farmland because they flood regularly and flooding leaches out the minerals.
    • d. received their name because some have a triangular shape, but many don’t.
    • e. are places where the main trunk stream divides into many distributaries.
  • 11. Which of the following statements is FALSE? The Mississippi River Delta

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. consists of several distinct lobes.
    • b. is the product of several avulsions.
    • c. developed its shape because the ocean current there was stronger than the river current.
    • d. is a bird’s-foot delta.
    • e. is the site of the city of New Orleans.
  • 12. A stream and the sediment it carries empties into a human-made reservoir. Pick the most logical follow-up statement.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. The reservoir will have no effect on the environment of the area.
    • b. The reservoir will provide irrigation water, hydroelectric power, and recreation areas.
    • c. The reservoir will increase the frequency of flooding in the area.
    • d. The animal and plant population of the area will remain unchanged.
    • e. Downstream of the reservoir the waters will have increased sediment load and abrasive power.
  • 13. The stream in the diagram flows at an average velocity of 6 ft/s.

    image

    Its discharge is:

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. 4,800 ft 3/s
    • b. 240 ft 3/s
    • c. 1,000 ft 3/s
    • d. 660 ft 3/s
    • e. 6,000 ft 3/s
  • 14. Fluvial landscapes that are early in their evolutionary progression have

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. broad floodplains.
    • b. narrow, deep valleys.
    • c. natural levees.
    • d. oxbow lakes.
    • e. All the possible answers are correct.
  • 15. Streams come down out of steep areas onto much flatter land, lose velocity, and drop material in wedge-shaped structures called

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. point banks.
    • b. alluvial fans.
    • c. levees.
    • d. sandbars.
    • e. deltas.
  • 16. At what point (A through E) should the river flow be fastest?

    image

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. A.
    • b. B.
    • c. C.
    • d. D.
    • e. E.
  • 17. Where is erosion likely to be greatest, at point A, B, C, D, or E?

    image

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. A.
    • b. B.
    • c. C.
    • d. D.
    • e. E.
  • 18. Which of the following was the location of a flash flood caused by the failure of a dam?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. Bangladesh, 1990
    • b. Yangtze River, China, 1931
    • c. Big Thompson River, Colorado, 1976
    • d. Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 1889
    • e. upper Mississippi River Valley, 1993
  • 19. A flood hazard maps shows

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. areas where extremely high tides and tsunamis may cause flooding.
    • b. the elevations below which flood risk is great and above which flood risk is not great.
    • c. land areas where there is 1 percent annual flood probability, and an 0.2 percent annual flood probability.
    • d. the boundaries of a river’s flood plain (unless decreased by adequate levee systems).
    • e. the area that will be flooded once per century.
  • 20. Which of the following statements is FALSE?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. Early civilizations of Egypt, India, and China were established in river valleys and on floodplains.
    • b. For centuries humankind has used rivers for transportation to supply food, irrigation water, and drinking water; to generate power; and as sites for recreation and for waste disposal.
    • c. Floodplains are areas of fertile soil, replenished yearly by seasonal floods.
    • d. If a dam is constructed properly, it will not change the local ecosystem.
    • e. Overuse of the waters of the Colorado River has reduced it to a mere trickle near its mouth.
  • 21. What is the term describing the relationship of the three rivers marked with an X in this picture?

    image

    The rivers flow from top to bottom in the picture, and the parallel whitish streaks that run almost left to right are bedrock ridges with intervening valleys (greenish-bluish bands).

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. superposed
    • b. trellis
    • c. antecedent
    • d. dendritic
    • e. rejuvenated
  • 22. Identify the FALSE statement. Streams cause erosion by

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. suspended load.
    • b. scouring.
    • c. breaking and lifting.
    • d. abrasion.
    • e. dissolution.
  • 23. Identify the FALSE statement.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. An annual probability of 4 percent means there’s a one in twenty-five chance that a flood of some given size will happen in any given year.
    • b. A 200-year flood has a recurrence interval of, on the average, once every 200 years.
    • c. The size of a flood is described in terms of its discharge, measured in cubic feet (or cubic meters) per second.
    • d. The size of a flood and its recurrence interval are inversely related; the larger the flood, the shorter its recurrence interval.
    • e. The annual probability is the reciprocal of the recurrence interval (annual probability = 1/recurrence interval).
  • 24. Stream piracy

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. results when headward erosion causes one stream to intersect the course of another stream.
    • b. can leave a dry channel through a high ridge called a wind gap.
    • c. created the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains.
    • d. causes the pirate stream to increase its discharge, while the captured stream goes dry.
    • e. All the possible answers are correct.
  • 25. The river with the greatest discharge in the world is the

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. Mississippi.
    • b. Nile.
    • c. Ob.
    • d. Amazon.
    • e. Ganges.
  • 26. Broad sweeping bends of a river channel are called oxbow lakes.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 27. The terms “fluvial deposits” and “alluvium” both refer to sediment deposited by a stream.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 28. What does the term “undermining” mean?

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. the erosion and destabilization of a steep slope along the outside bank of a river channel, due to fast-running or floodwater
    • b. the process by which fast currents may remove smaller particles from a river bottom, eventually destabilizing a much larger clast (such as a boulder) and causing it to tip or roll
    • c. the process whereby water flowing through the pore spaces between gravels of a braided stream begin to carry away the downstream end of a gravel or sandbar that is found between two channels
    • d. the process whereby turbulent flow of water cuts deeply into the normally quiet inside bank of a meander, causing deep erosion
    • e. the process whereby the seepage of water through a levee increases as a river level rises, causing water to flow out of the “dry” side of a levee and carrying ever-increasing amounts of sediment with it, potentially causing a washout of the levee and a flood
  • 29. A stream is capable of erosion, transportation, and deposition of materials.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 30. Streams carry their load in suspension, in solution, and as bed load.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 31. The total load that a stream can carry is called its competence.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 32. Because the Big Thompson Flood of 1976 was a 100-year flood, it’s almost impossible for such a flood to happen again for another 99 years.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 33. The Mississippi River Flood Control Act of the 1920s resulted in the construction of dams and reservoirs, levees, and floodwalls by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 34. Building gauging stations and studying an area to identify possible problems associated with high flow or high water levels is a logical first step in flood control.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 35. All stream rejuvenation is caused by the rising of land or the falling of base level.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 36. A drainage network is an interconnected group of streams that collects water over a large area and drains it toward a body of water (or in arid regions, an inland sea, a playa, or a “sink”).

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 37. Turbulent flow moves water swiftly and directly downstream, giving it no chance to erode the channel.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 38. Potholes form when water rich in calcium carbonate dissolves a section of streambed bedrock.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 39. Fast-moving water has a greater competence than does quiet water.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 40. Local base levels are short lived because running water erodes the features that create them.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 41. A stream that is eroding more material than it is depositing is termed a braided stream.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 42. A stairstep-shaped canyon develops where a stream downcuts through alternating layers of hard and soft rock.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 43. Stream terraces are the result of extremely high flood levels that deposit debris far from the stream channel.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 44. Plate tectonics events can produce mountains whose uplift can cause drainage reversal in existing river systems.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 45. The jet stream was a key contributing factor to Mississippi River flooding in 1993 because it trapped warm, moist Gulf of Mexico air over the central United States.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 46. The capacity of a stream or river is the amount of water it carries (discharges).

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False
  • 47. Since it’s unrealistic to build levees and reservoirs that could prevent all conceivable floods, it’s sensible to allow some floodplains to revert to wetlands and to create floodways where flooding damage would be minimal.

    • Topic: n/a
    • a. True
    • b. False

    Source: http://wwnorton.com

 

Join the Conversation

2 Comments

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.