Social Psychology Ch. 1 Review

Social-Psychology

Chapter Outline

Characterizing Social Psychology

  • Explaining Behavior
  • Comparing Social Psychology with Related Disciplines

The Power of the Situation

  • The Milgram Experiment
  • Seminarians as Samaritans
  • The Fundamental Attribution Error
  • Channel Factors

The Role of Construal

  • Interpreting Reality
  • Schemas
  • Stereotypes

Automatic versus Controlled Processing

  • Types of Unconscious Processing
  • Functions of Unconscious Processing

Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same

  • Human Universals
  • Group Living, Language, and Theory of Mind
  • Evolution and Gender Roles
  • Avoiding the Naturalistic Fallacy
  • Social Neuroscience

Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different

  • Cultural Differences in Social Relations and Self-Understanding
  • Who Are You?
  • Individualism versus Collectivism in the Workplace
  • Culture and Gender Roles
  • Some Qualifications
  • Culture and Evolution as Tools for Understanding Situations

 

Quiz

Quiz name: Social Psychology 3e
Chapter Number: 01
Number of questions: 15

  • Question: According to Kurt Lewin, which of the following people would be most likely to volunteer their time collecting food for a hunger drive?
    Correct answer is: c) Lane, who agreed to meet volunteers at 10 a.m. on Saturday and was given directions to the YMCA
  • Question: Charles has just seen a play in which Troy portrayed the villain. Troy’s performance was brilliant and quite convincing. Despite knowing that Troy was just acting, Charles insists that Troy must have a mean, devious, and villainous side to his personality. This belief is being influenced by
    Correct answer is: a) the fundamental attribution error

  • Question: Joey meets Monica for the first time in the hallway outside of their respective apartments. They flirt with each other for a few minutes, and then Monica invites Joey in for a glass of lemonade. While she is making the lemonade in the kitchen, Joey takes off all his clothes and prepares for a romantic encounter. Monica arrives with the lemonade and is shocked at what she sees. A social psychologist would say that Joey and Monica have very different ____________ regarding this situation.
    Correct answer is: a) construals

  • Question: Which of the following is one reason why participants in the Milgram studies are thought to have obeyed the experimenter?
    Correct answer is: b) The experimenter took responsibility for the participants’ actions.

  • Question: According to Hofstede, people in individualistic cultures are more likely to want which of the following in their work environment?
    Correct answer is: a) recognition for a job well done

  • Question: According to Darley and Batson’s 1973 Good Samaritan study, the factor that best predicted whether the students would help the man in the doorway was
    Correct answer is: a) how late they thought they were for their talk

  • Question: Jeff believes that monogamy is impossible for men. He believes that, because evolution favored the genes of those men who had as many children as possible, it is inevitable (and therefore morally acceptable) that men should have sex with as many partners as possible. This reasoning represents
    Correct answer is: c) the naturalistic fallacy

  • Question: Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) found that some of their participants denied being prejudiced toward Blacks in a survey, but that these same participants were slower to identify pleasant words when they were paired with a Black versus a White face in a computer task. Denying prejudice in a survey is a consequence of a(n) ____________ process, while slower identification of words reflects a(n) ____________ process.
    Correct answer is: b) controlled; automatic

  • Question: Asch (1940) asked undergraduates to indicate how prestigious politicians were. Prior to their rating, one group was told that a sample of fellow students had ranked politicians near the top in prestige, whereas a second group was told fellow students ranked politicians near the bottom. The participants’ ratings were consistent with those of their fellow students. Asch suggested this was because the comparison information activated different ________ for the two groups; one group was thinking of statesmen like Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and the other was thinking of corrupt politicians.
    Correct answer is: b) schemas

  • Question: The textbook authors suggest that evolution may also have left humans with an awareness that other people have beliefs, and that those beliefs may predict their actions. This is called
    Correct answer is: a) theory of mind

  • Question: Imagine that Jack, a male father, is less willing to make sacrifices to care for his child than is Jill, the female mother. Which of the following provides the best explanation for this difference?
    Correct answer is: a) parental investment

  • Question: Social psychology differs from folk wisdom (or everyday knowledge) in what important way?
    Correct answer is: a) Social psychologists test their hypotheses using carefully crafted empirical studies.

  • Question: Carol believes that all blondes are dumb. This belief could best be described as a
    Correct answer is: b) stereotype

  • Question: Which of the following research questions is a social psychologist most likely to pursue?
    Correct answer is: c) To what extent does the attractiveness of a speaker influence the persuasiveness of that speaker’s message?

  • Question: College students were asked to play a game in which cooperating with each other would lead to the greatest assured payoff for both contestants, but competing against each other (otherwise known as”defecting”) held the possibility of an even greater gain for the aggressor. The risk in competing was that both players could end up with nothing. This game mimics which psychological situation?
    Correct answer is: c) prisoner’s dilemma

 

Flash Cards

Term Description
Social psychology The scientific study of the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of individuals in social situations. (page 5)
Dispositions Internal factors such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities that guide a person’s behavior. (page 12)
Fundamental attribution error The failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traits on behavior. (page 13)
Channel factors Certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior, either facilitating or blocking it or guiding behavior in a particular direction. (page 13)
Construal People’s interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situations they confront. (page 14)
Gestalt psychology Based on the German word gestalt, meaning ‘form” or ‘figure,” this approach stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device but by active, usually unconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a whole. (page 14)
Prisoner’s dilemma A situation involving payoffs to two people, who must decide whether to ‘cooperate” or ‘defect.” In the end, trust and cooperation lead to higher joint payoffs than mistrust and defection. (page 15)
Schema A knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information. (page 17)
Natural selection An evolutionary process that molds animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to subsequent generations. (page 22)
Theory of mind The understanding that other people have beliefs and desires. (page 24)
Parental investment The evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females, one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other sex. (page 25)
Naturalistic fallacy The claim that the way things are is the way they should be. (page 26)
Independent (individualistic) cultures Cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities, tied to each other by voluntary bonds of affection and organizational memberships but essentially separate from other people and having attributes that exist in the absence of any connection to others. (page 29)
Interdependent (collectivistic) cultures Cultures in which people tend to define themselves as part of a collective, inextricably tied to others in their group and placing less importance on individual freedom or personal control over their lives. (page 30)

 

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